Publications and further reading

Autonomous Language Learning Series

Burkert, A., Dam, L., & Ludwig, C. (Eds.) (2019). The Answer is learner autonomy: Issues in language teaching and learning. (First published in 2013 as an ebook by IATEFL). Hong Kong: Candlin & Mynard.

Everhard, C.J, Mynard, J., with Smith, R. (Eds.) (2019). Autonomy in language learning. Opening a can of worms. Hong Kong: Candlin & Mynard.

Ludwig, C., & Mynard, J. (Eds.) (2014). Autonomy in language learning: Tools, tasks and environments. Faversham, Kent: IATEFL

Ludwig, C., Pinter, A., an de Poel, K., Smits, T., Tassinari, M.G., & Ruelens, E. (Eds.) (2018). Fostering learner autonomy: Learners, teachers and researchers in action. Hong Kong: Candlin & Mynard.

Ludwig, C., Tassinari, M.G., & Mynard, J. (Eds.) (2020). Navigating foreign language learner autonomy. Hong Kong: Candlin & Mynard.

Menegale, M. (Ed.) (2019). Autonomy in language learning: Getting learners actively involved. (First published in 2012 as an ebook by IATEFL). Hong Kong: Candlin & Mynard.

Mynard, J. Tamala, M., & Peeters, W. (Eds.) (2020). Supporting learners and educators in developing language learner autonomy. Hong Kong: Candlin & Mynard.

Schwienhorst, K. (Ed.) (2018). Learner autonomy in second language pedagogy and research: Challenges and issues. Hong Kong: Candlin & Mynard.

Positive Pedagogical Praxis: The Quickstart Series

You can learn more about the Positive Pedagogical Praxis Series here.

Ludwig, C., & Moore-Walter, L. (2020). Learner-controlled tasks for the autonomy classroom: A teacher’s resource book. Hong Kong: Candlin & Mynard.

Further selected publications on the field of learner autonomy

Barnes, D. (1976). From communication to curriculum. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin.

Benson, P. (2011a). Teaching and researching autonomy (2nd ed.). Harlow, UK: Pearson Education Limited.

Benson, P. (2011b). Language learning and teaching beyond the classroom: An introduction to the field. In P. Benson & H. Reinders (Eds.), Beyond the language classroom (pp. 7-16). Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.

Benson, P. (2011c). What’s new in autonomy? The Language Teacher, 35(4), 15-18.

Council of Europe (2001). Common European framework of reference for languages: Learning, teaching, assessment. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Crabbe, D. (1993). Fostering autonomy from within the classroom: the teacher’s responsibility. System 21(4), 443-452.

Dam, L. (1995). Learner autonomy 3: From theory to classroom practice. Dublin, Ireland: Authentik.

Dam, L., & Legenhausen, L. (1996). The acquisition of vocabulary in an autonomous learning environment – the first months of beginning English. In R. Pemberton, E. S.L. Li, W. W.F. Or, and H. Peirson (Eds.), Taking control: Autonomy in language learning (pp.7-10). Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.

Gabel, S., & Heim, K. (2019). Action research in pre-service teacher education. A step towards autonomy? ELT Research, (34), 7-10.

Hanks, J. (2017). Exploratory practice in language teaching. London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan. doi:10.1057/978-1-137-45344-0

Holec, H. (1981). Autonomy and foreign language learning. Oxford, UK: Pergamon.

Jiménez Raya, M. & Vieira, F. (Eds.) (2021). Autonomy in language education. Theory, research and practice. New York, NY: Routledge.

Lacey, F. (2014). Authenticity means that it’s got to be real. Retrieved from

Lacey, F. (2014). It’s all about logbooks, Dummy. Retrieved from

Lacey, F. (2018). Autonomy, never, never, never! In C. J. Everhard & J. Mynard with R. Smith (Eds.), Autonomy in language learning: opening a can of worms (pp. 233-243). Hong Kong: Candlin & Mynard.Retrieved from

Lacey, F. (2017). Autonomy and anarchy. Retrieved from

Lewis, T., Cappellini, M., & Rivens Mompean, A. (Eds.) (2017). Learner autonomy and Web 2.0. Sheffield: Equinox.

Little, D. (1991). Learner autonomy 1: Definitions, issues and problems. Dublin, Ireland: Authentik.

Little, D. (1995). Learning as dialogue: The dependence of learner autonomy on teacher autonomy. System, 23(2), 175-181.

Little, D. (2007). Language learner autonomy: Some fundamental considerations revisited. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 1(1), 14-29.

Little, D. (2020). Language learner autonomy: Rethinking language teaching. Language Teaching, 1-10. doi:10.1017/S0261444820000488    

Little, D., Dam, L., & Legenhausen, L. (2017). Language learner autonomy: Theory, practice and research. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.

Morrison, B. & Navarro, D. (2014). The autonomy approach. Language learning in the classroom and beyond. Delta Publishing.

Murray, G. & Lamb, T. (Eds). (2019). Space, place and autonomy in language learning. New York: Routledge.

Mynard, J., Burke, M., Hooper, D., Kushida, B., Lyon, P., Sampson, R., & Taw, P. (2020). Dynamics of a social language learning community. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.

Oxford, R.L. (2008). Hero with a thousand faces: Learner autonomy, learning strategies and learning tactics in independent language learning. In S. Hurd & T. Lewis (Eds.), Language learning strategies in independent settings (pp. 41-6) Bristol, UK, Buffalo, NY & Toronto, Canada: Multilingual.

Oxford, R.L. (2017). Teaching and researching language learning strategies: Self-regulation in context. New York: Routledge.

Palfreyman, D. (2003). Introduction: Culture and learner autonomy. In D. Palfreyman. & R. C. Smith (Eds.), Learner autonomy across cultures (pp. 1-19). Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.

Reinders, H., & White, C. (2016). 20 years of autonomy and technology: How far have we come and where to next? Language Learning & Technology, 20(2), 143-154.

Reinders, H. (2010). Materials development for learner autonomy. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 35, 40-55.

Reinders, H., & Balçıkanlı, C. (2011). Do classroom textbooks encourage learner autonomy? Novitas-ROYAL (Research on Youth and Language), 5(2), 265-272.

Scharle, Á. & Szabó, A. (2000). Learner autonomy. A guide to developing learner responsibility. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Smith, R.C. (2003). Pedagogy for autonomy as (becoming–)appropriate methodology. In D. Palfreyman & R.C. Smith (eds.) Learner autonomy across cultures: Language education perspectives (pp. 129-146). Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.

Ushioda, E. (2006). Motivation and autonomy in language learning. In M. Kötter, O. Traxel & S. Gabel (Eds.), Investigating and facilitating language learning. Essays in honour of Lienhard Legenhausen, (pp. 283-295). Trier, Germany: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier.

van Lier, L. (2007). Action-based teaching, autonomy and identity. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 1(1), 46-65.

Selected publication in the field of advising for language learning

Kato, S., & Mynard, J. (2016). Reflective dialogue: Advising in language learning. New York: Routledge.

Ludwig, C., & Mynard, J. (Eds.) (2019). Autonomy in language learning: Advising in action. (First published in 2012 as an ebook by IATEFL). Hong Kong: Candlin & Mynard.

Mozzon-McPherson, M. & Tassinari, M.G. (2020). From language teachers to language learning advisors. A journey map. Philologia Hispalensis, 34(1), 121–139.

Mynard J., & Carson, L. (2012). Advising in language learning: Dialogue, tools and context. Harlow, UK: Pearson.

For an extensive list of publications related to learner autonomy, visit Hayo Reinder’s Innovation in Teaching website.